Biolog Phenotype MicroArray
     Serious Technology for Serious Microbiology April 2016
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Useful Links

Quorum Sensing Studied with Phenotype MircroArrays

Phenotype MicroArray

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There is a relationship between quorum sensing, swarming, biofilm formation, resistance to oxidative stress, and antibiotic resistance. Biolog Phenotype MicroArrays have been employed in the study of this interplay. Phenotype MicroArrays reveal important and informative phenotypes relevant to the study of quorum sensing and related biology.
 
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  Influence of Quorum Sensing in Multiple Phenotypes of the Bacterial Pathogen Chromobacterium violaceum

The role of quorum sensing (QS) on several diverse phenotypes was investigated. Phenotype MicroArrays were used to identify carbon and nitrogen sources that were used to a lower extent by the QS deficient mutant strain. They also showed an effect of QS on aggregation, biofilm formation, swarming, and H2O2 stress tolerance.
 
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  Multiple Antibiotic Susceptibility of Polyphosphate Kinase Mutants (ppk1 and ppk2) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 as Revealed by Global Phenotypic Analysis

ppk1 mutants are deficient in quorum sensing, motility, and biofilm formation. Phenotype MicroArrays were used to identify phenotypes associated with polyphosphate kinase ppk1 and ppk2 mutants. Both mutants shared phenotypic changes including increased susceptibility to certain antibiotics. The authors suggest that ppk1 is a good target for inhibitors with anti-virulence and anti-persistence properties.
 
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  Novel Functions of (p)ppGpp and Cyclic di-GMP in Mycobacterial Physiology Revealed by Phenotype Microarray Analysis of Wild-Type and Isogenic Strains of Mycobacterium smegmatis

Using Phenotype MicroArrays, strains unable to produce (p)ppGpp or c-di-GMP were found to be relatively resistant to several antibiotics including amoxicillin, ampicillin, rifampicin, and tetracycline. Mutant strains displayed defects in biofilm formation and cell surface properties prompting an analysis of glycopeptidolipids (GPL's) and polar lipids. Mutant strains had reduced levels of GPL's and polar lipids resulting in a more hydrophobic cell surface. These data suggest involvement of these second messengers in GPL and polar lipid metabolism.
 
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  Quorum Sensing Enhancement of the Stress Response Promotes Resistance to Quorum Quenching and Prevents Social Cheating

The authors demonstrate that a quorum sensing increases resistance to a variety of stressors. Phenotype MicroArrays were used to demonstrate that a QS-deficient mutant is relatively sensitive to certain osmolytes and toxic compounds. It is also shown that in mixed populations, oxidative stress selects for strains resistant to QS inhibitors.
 
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Phenotype MicroArray Technology
Biolog's Phentoype MicroArray technology enables researchers to evaluate nearly 2000 phenotypes of a microbial cell in a single experiment. This integrated system of cellular assays, instrumentation and bioinformatics software provides cellular knowledge that complements molecular information, helping you interpret and find the relevant aspects in massive amounts of gene expression or proteomics data. Through comprehensive and precise quantitation of phenotypes, researchers are able to obtain an unbiased perspective of the effect on cells of genetic differences, environmental change, exposure to chemicals or drugs, and more.
 
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