Biolog Phenotype MicroArray
     Serious Technology for Serious Microbiology August 2015
""
     
 
""

Useful Links

Biocides Studied with Phenotype MicroArrays

Phenotype MicroArray
""
"" "" ""
 
 
Biocides are widely used agents for rendering microorganisms harmless across medicine, agriculture, forestry, and the food industry.  Hexachlorophene is the active agent in a prescription body wash and benzalkonium chloride is a widely used surface disinfectant.  Triclosan is found in over-the-counter tooth paste and chlorhexidine is a prescription oral antiseptic.  These agents and others are also ingredients found in consumer products and food grade biocide formulations.  This newsletter highlights the use of Phenotype MicroArrays for research on biocide transport and biocide-antibiotic cross resistance.   
 
"" "" ""
  Predictive Studies Suggest that the Risk for the Selection of Antibiotic Resistance by Biocides Is Likely Low in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Clinical Strains Obtained after Exposure to Biocides and Antibiotics
The effects of hexachlorophene and benzalkonium chloride on induction of antibiotic resistance were studied in S. maltophilia. Functional metabolic profiling of benzalkonium resistant mutants using Phenotype MicroArrays indicated increased ability to use certain dipeptides and tripeptides as nitrogen sources. Benzalkonium chloride resistant mutants also exhibited some antibiotic resistance, and decreased fitness.
 
""""""
  Polymorphic Variation in Susceptibility and Metabolism of Triclosan-Resistant Mutants of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae Clinical Strains Obtained after Exposure to Biocides and Antibiotics
Mutants with varying degrees of triclosan resistance were obtained after exposure to a variety of biocides. Phenotype MicroArrays were used to monitor alterations in antimicrobial susceptibility. Triclosan resistance resulted in fitness costs, increased utilization of some carbon sources, and a variety of genetic alterations.
 
""""""
  Homologs of the Acinetobacter baumannii AceI Transporter Represent a New Family of Bacterial Multidrug Efflux Systems
23 proteins homologous to AceI (Acinetobacter Chlorhexidine Efflux) were expressed and their resistance profiles were examined. For the Vibrio parahaemolyticus homolog, Phenotype MicroArray inhibitor tests confirmed some substrates and identified new substrates. The group was designated the Proteobacterial Antimicrobial Compound Efflux (PACE) family of transporters.
 
""""""
  Transcriptomic and Biochemical Analyses Identify a Family of Chlorhexidine Efflux Proteins
This paper includes the transcriptional response of A. baumannii to chlorhexidine and the identification of a new drug efflux pump (AceI). Cells overexpressing AceI were relatively resistant to chlorhexidine, but none of the other 239 inhbitors in the Phenotype MicroArray test set. AceI was designated the prototype of the previously undescribed PCE family of efflux systems.
 
""""""
  Efficacy of Biocides Used in the Modern Food Industry To Control Salmonella enterica, and Links between Biocide Tolerance and Resistance to Clinically Relevant Antimicrobial Compounds
Several food grade biocide formulations, including the active agents triclosan and chlorhexidine, were tested against a collection of 189 characterized Salmonella strains. The OmniLog instrument was used to collect data for MIC determination. While high-level tolerance to biocides could be selected, no biocide cross tolerance was observed. Tolerant strains emerging from sub-lethal doses of biocides were associated with changes in antimicrobial susceptibility.
 
""""""
 
Phenotype MicroArray Technology
Biolog's Phentoype MicroArray technology enables researchers to evaluate nearly 2000 phenotypes of a microbial cell in a single experiment. This integrated system of cellular assays, instrumentation and bioinformatics software provides cellular knowledge that complements molecular information, helping you interpret and find the relevant aspects in massive amounts of gene expression or proteomics data. Through comprehensive and precise quantitation of phenotypes, researchers are able to obtain an unbiased perspective of the effect on cells of genetic differences, environmental change, exposure to chemicals or drugs, and more.
 
""""""
""""""