Phenotype MicroArrays for Microbial Cells
HOW PM TECHNOLOGY WORKS
|How PM's Work|
Phenotype MicroArrays (PMs) represent the third major technology, alongside DNA Microarrays and Proteomic Technologies, that is needed in the genomic era of research and drug development (Figure 1). Just as DNA Microarrays and Proteomic Technologies have made it possible to assay the level of thousands of genes or proteins all at once, Phenotype MicroArrays make it possible to quantitatively measure thousands of cellular phenotypes all at once. Many publications demonstrate the power of this technology in enabling new discoveries and in generating new hypothesis.
DNA Microarrays and Proteomic Technologies allow scientists to detect genes or proteins that are coregulated and whose patterns of change correlate with something important such as a disease state. However there is no assurance that these changes are really significant to the cell. Phenotype MicroArrays are a complementary technology providing the needed information at the cellular level ... and much more.
Phenotype MicroArrays provide comprehensive cellular profiles that can be used to identify gene function, validate drug targets, and streamline lead validation, optimization, and toxicology studies. After a genetic change or exposure to a drug lead, the researcher can directly evaluate the cellular response to that change.
Phenotype MicroArray technology is a breakthrough platform technology. It is an integrated system of cellular assays, instrumentation, and bioinformatic software for high-throughput screening (HTS) of cells.The technology and the testing process are shown Figure 2. Biolog preconfigures a wide range of phenotypic tests into sets of arrays. Each well of the array is designed to test a different phenotype. The scientist simply inoculates a standardized cell suspension into the wells of the MicroArray, thereby testing thousands of phenotypes at once. The MicroArray is then incubated, typically for 24 hours.
- Cell surface structure and transport functions
- Catabolism of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur
- Biosynthesis of small molecules
- Synthesis and function of macromolecules and cellular machinery
- Cellular respiratory functions
- Stress and repair functions
- Other cellular properties